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........ published in NEWSLETTER # 56
MATERIALS AND PROCESSES FOR SURFACE AND INTERFACE ENGINEERING
by Professor Y. Pauleau, National Polytechnic Institute, Grenoble (France)
This book (NATO ASI SERIES E290) which was written by experts in the field of deposition technology and surface modification techniques, offers up-to-date tutorial papers on the latest advances in surface and interface engineering. Comprehensive reviews and discussions are presented on four main topics including: (a) fundamental apsects of plasma and discharge physics, ion-solid interactions, ion and laser beam effects on materials surface, interface structure, adhesion of films and ion beam processing, (b) deposition and surface modification techniques, (c) characterization of engineered surfaces, interfaces and thin films by spectroscopic analyses, (d) properties and major applications of hard coatings and multilayers, solid lubricant coatings, dielectric and optical coatings, corrosion-resistant coatings and polymeric coatings.
The discharge physics behind low pressure high density plasma (>10exp11 ions/cm3) sources including inductively coupled plasma, helicon plasma and electron cyclotron resonance sources used to etch and deposit thin films, implant large area substrates and fabricate nano scale particles are discussed. Some basic physical understanding and analytic or numeric methods including computer simulations to find adequate solutions for most problems encountered in ion and laser-solid interactions (defect creation and sputtering, reflection, channeling, atomic mixing, ablation) are described. The physical basis of thin film adhesion, the respective roles of interface chemistry, interface texture and interface topology in creating a high-performance bond as well as the techniques for constructing such ideal surfaces (ion beam mixing, low energy ion beam treatment) are reviewed; these techniques have been implemented in particular for non- interacting, non-bonding systems as Cu-alumina or Cu-PTFE where direct attachment using ion beams is now readily achieved.
The second section is devoted to reviews and discussions of thin film deposition techniques such as physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes, conventional and novel chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, plasma spraying, detonation gun and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition techniques, ion implantation, ion beam-assisted thin film deposition processes, laser beam and photon-assisted processes.
During the past decades, many spectroscopic techniques for probing various properties of surfaces, interfaces and thin films have been developed to near perfection; these techniques are described in the third section with emphasis on ion beam analysis.
The final section deals with the properties and applications of ceramic, metallic and polymeric films and coatings which can be hard, lubricant, insulating or corrosion and wear resistant. The synthesis of these coatings has become the subject of intensive interdisciplinary research because of the numerous potential applications. The reasons for using multilayers as hard wear protective films including improved adhesion between the film and the substrate, low chemical reactivity and low friction, increased strength and hardness of the films are discussed. The major advantages and interests of solid lubricant thin films produced by plasma-based deposition techniques are illustrated by various examples in particular by Ag/CaF2 multilayer structures produced by sputter-deposition techniques. The field of dielectric and optical coatings which has undergone an upsurge is investigated since recently new deposition techniques have been developed and older ones improved. Furthermore, the basic aspects of corrosion and corrosion protection are presented. Various possibilities for corrosion protection by surface modification and coatings are discussed and illustrated by several examples. In recent years, ion beam-induced modifications of physical and chemical properties of polymeric films have been widely studied; examples of these modifications of electrical, optical, barrier and tribological properties are presented and discussed in connection with the related elementary chemical modifications.
Scientists, engineers and managers from industry, university or government laboratory can benefit from this comprehensive book in which a variety of basic and applied aspects of materials and processes associated with the protection of surfaces are presented at a tutorial level.
Reference books: B188, B191, B195, B198, B239, B267, B271, B283, B300, C355, E115, E134, E170, E173, E176, E243, E290
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